If you click Delete Question on that dialog for that question I think that you will not be able to do so, because it has an answer with a net upvote. However, the moderators can override that and delete both your question and any answers to it if you or anyone else flags them, and whoever actions it (unilaterally; or after discussion in the mod room, which I prefer) agrees that it should be removed. Alternatively, if the answerer deletes their answer, then you will be able to delete your question.
Your suggestion of trying to salvage your question is not impossible, but I think any effort to do so would gut what I think to be the original intent of your question i.e. to assemble a list of similar examples.
My position on list questions is largely shaped by this Meta Q&A, and especially by @Shog9's answer:
We could use better management of popular, but "bad" questions
and is largely described in my answer to:
Should older questions not meeting current standards be closed or locked?
Your question was new, but to me it had all the hallmarks of being another "list of interesting maps" Q&A. I had no hesitation voting for its closure when I saw it and a quick answer, because I think it is a potentially popular but bad question for focussed Q&A.
One possible way to shoe horn it into staying is to make it Community Wiki, and Wiki Lock it, but The Future of Community Wiki generally discourages using Community Wiki nowadays. A Wiki Lock allows the answer to continue to be edited by anyone, and is not the same as an Historical Lock.
If it is not focused Q&A then I find it very hard to make a case for a question on cartographic "jokes" to stay open on a site promoting focused Q&A, and for me Community Wiki is very much a tool of last resort.